REQUIREMENTS ELICITATION TECHNIQUES
REQUIREMENTS ELICITATION TECHNIQUES
The requirements elicitation techniques are the methods and actions to get requirements from users, customers and stakeholders and then develop software to fulfil the business management requirements.
The interview is one of the easy and verbal conversational techniques between the analysts and the stakeholders to obtain the requirements. This technique is one of the most used and well known ways of gather requirements in elicitation. This technique containing the different types from which one is structured interviews which is also called the closed interviews. In the structured or close interviews the predefined set of question related to project is used as well the structured interviews are considering as the formal activity. In this technique the question can be ask to the customer , users and stakeholders and during this interview it necessary for the customers, users and stakeholders answer the question carefully, accurately with tolerant. The second is semi Structured interviews are unplanned, with the set of predefined questions that can be asked to the users, customers and stakeholders. The third is non-structured interviews are also called open interviews and are unplanned, with the set of predefined questions that can be asked to the users, customers and stakeholders. This technique is considering as informal and is conversation between the analysts and the stakeholders for the production of qualitative data. It is not important to discuss all topics during this interview to get the valid results of the activity. The forth is oral interviews are an effective technique without having the rules but with proven logical questions can be asked to the stakeholders and users. The fifth is written interviews are performed in the form of written question and answer can be obtained from the stakeholders and users. The sixth one to one interview is a type of interview technique through which two participants can ask questions each other across the table. The seventh is group interviews are a requirement elicitation technique in which different groups can participate for gathering the missing requirements.
The document analysis technique is used to get the requirement from the available documents related to the project and by analysing the different information sources. In this technique human interaction is involve which is required to get the documented data and it’s depend on the availability of documents and the human interaction. Documents useful for this technique are may be vary but design document, templates and manuals are involved in this process. Further its need to ensure that the provide documents are in use and the information mentioned are accurate otherwise it can lead to misinformation and cause the gathering of required irrelevant to the scope of the project that’s why the analyst expertise in case is important to judge and get the accurate information in the form of documents through the human interactions.
The questionnaires/survey is one of the low cost requirements eliciting technique. This technique used when online meeting and interviews are not possible to conduct with the stakeholders and users. It is useful technical for getting the requirements from the larger number of peoples from different locations. A survey questionnaire is prepared and distributed amongst the people and it is necessary the survey questionnaire must be clear and the question defined well to understandable format for all type of participants.
This technique can only be used combine with other techniques which is helpful to know the thoughts of somebody to know how the system should be and this idea considered as first phase requirements. This techniques is more helpful for the users who need the knowledge about the others fields rather than their own field.
For the observation the analyst are visit the workplace of the end users and observing their working method without interrupting and interfering in their work. This technique is also known as the social analysis for requirement elicitation. The most use of this technique is required when the customer or stakeholders are not able to explain the requirement to the vendors.
According to this method the requirement can be gathers by observing the different communities for specific period of time. The field work is involved to meet with the different communities instead of customers and stakeholder and users. The involvements of the analysts are required to observe the organization structure and its working to get the accurate requirements.
According to the prototyping a dummy version of the system need to launch to check the users requirement on receiving further requirement from the users the system can be updated as per the rule of requirements. It is used in case of where the user knowledge will zero regarding the requirements and an early response cannot be expected from the users and the stakeholders.
Joint Application Development
According to the joint application development technique, the joint meeting and sessions conducted between the analysts and the customers, the time of this session can be four to five days and the participant chosen process is very done very careful. In this session all the requirements gathered one time and expertise and opinion of the percipient can also be considered and are helpful.
As per the brainstorming technique the different participant are getting specific time to give idea for the development of system. This technique is an informal which is based on discussion on particular issues. The members can be from different fields. After the discussion the appropriate ideas are recorded.
The requirement workshop can be conducted in different session in which all participants share the requirements and it is a technique which can structuralist. It is required to implement this technique through proper planning and preparation.
In the group work techniques the stakeholders are invited to attend a meeting for the requirement elicitation. In this meeting the stakeholders can give their ideas and preferences. It is require that to discuss each requirement properly and suggest the ideas.
In the user scenarios techniques, after completion of initial requirement gather process, this technique can be used and according to this technique a scenario can be issued it includes the process detail, the time of starting, flow of events various activities and the end state. If the system required to design as per the user point of view then this technique is useful.
By using this technique the stakeholders’ goals and attributes can be elicited through interviews. This is an interviewing technique. First the main product attributes are elicited from users and with the help of these attributes interviewers going in deep through this technique in interviews and gathering information from the users and the stakeholder regarding their requirement, goals and preferences.
Through this technique the cards are provided to the stakeholders for sorting according to the requirements. These cards can be index or packages of software’s and card can be arranged in categories as well as these cards can be provided access online.
This technique is presenting the domain essentials by assigning matrix. This is semi-structured form of interviews in which the stakeholders are participating for the construction of domain essentials and is combination of other methods in the form of interviews.
Class Responsibility Collaboration
This technique is used in case required to define object oriented application. Cards are included in this technique but in this technique each card is presenting a class, responsibility and collaboration.
In this technique the users working time problems are analysed for the requirement gathering. Users are instructed to speak loudly related to the issue while they are engaged in their work. Users can speak at the same time for the related problem.